The cartridges to be used for the Enfield Rifles were greased with the fat of cows and pigs. As mutineers were captured, they were often killed on the spot, and many were executed in dramatic fashion. The immediate cause of the Indian Revolt of 1857, or Sepoy Mutiny, was a seemingly minor change in the weapons used by the British East India Company's troops.The Company had upgraded to the new Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle, which used greased paper cartridges. It was introduced in the Bengal Army by the East India Company in early 1857. Sepoys throughout India were issued with a new, more powerful and more accurate gun, the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifled musket. Historians like J.A.B. In 1877, outside Delhi, essentially in the spot where bloody fighting had taken place 20 years earlier, an event called the Imperial Assemblage was held. Outraged by events such as the massacre of women and children at Cawnpore, some British officers believed that hanging mutineers was too humane. It is a watershed in the history of pre-independent and early colonial India. The Enfield Pattern 1853 rifle-musket (also known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield, P53 Enfield, and Enfield rifle-musket) was a .577 calibre Minié-type muzzle-loading rifle-musket, used by the British Empire from 1853 to 1867, after which many Enfield 1853 rifle-muskets were converted to (and replaced in service by) the cartridge-loaded Snider-Enfield rifle. The cartridges were wrapped in paper, which had been coated in grease which made the cartridges easier to load in rifle barrels. The cow is sacred to Hindus and the pig is a taboo to the Muslims. Loading the Enfield required tearing open the greased cartridge with one's teeth. The Sepoy Mutiny was a violent and very bloody uprising against British rule in India in 1857. The standard method of loading was to bite the top off the cartridge and then pour the powder down the barrel. Quite rare possible Confederate use period copy of the P1853 rifle musket and made by various Sp ...Click for more info. Robert J. McNamara is a history expert and former magazine journalist. It was introduced in the Bengal Army by the British East India Company in early-1857. Unlike existing percussion muskets, the Enfield's grooved bore required the cartridge to be greased to allow loading. Increasing numbers of Christian missionaries began arriving in India, and their presence gave credence to rumors of impending conversions. This punishment incensed their comrades, who rose on May 10, shot their British officers, and marched to Delhi, where there were no European troops. Q. This provided the opportunity for circulating rumours that the paper was sealed with animal grease, either beef tallow or pork lard. The cartridges were wrapped in paper, which had been coated in grease which made the cartridges easier to load in rifle barrels. The uprising was put down, but the methods employed by the British were so harsh that many in the western world were offended. There was also a general feeling that English officers were losing touch with the Indian troops under them. In some cases, they used an execution method of lashing a mutineer to the mouth of a cannon, and then firing the cannon and literally blasting the man to pieces. In the late 1700s and early 1800s, sepoys tended to take great pride in their military prowess, and they exhibited enormous loyalty to their British officers. The rifle featured cartridges that contained 68 grains of black powder and had a ball that was typically 530-grain Pritchett or Burton-Minié. Sepoy units in the south of India remained loyal, but in the north, many units of the Bengal Army turned on the British. In Britain and in the West, it was almost always portrayed as a series of unreasonable and bloodthirsty uprisings spurred by falsehoods about religious insensitivity. To what extent was the issue of the greased cartridge from the Enfield rifle the key reason for the Revolt of 1857? The greased cartridges in the newly introduced Enfield rifles was the immediate Cause of the Revolt of 1857’. This made them offensive to both Muslims and Hindus, and added weight to … In the illustration, a mutineer was depicted chained to the front of a British cannon, awaiting his imminent execution, as others were gathered to watch the grisly spectacle. ShotGun Cartridges . A New Type of Rifle Cartridge Caused Problems, The Indian Revolt of 1857 Brought the End of the East India Company, Indian Rebellion of 1857: Siege of Lucknow, Seven Years' War: Major General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, Biography of Tipu Sultan, the Tiger of Mysore, Industry and Agriculture History in Europe, independence movement against British rule. Large numbers of native soldiers, known as sepoys, were employed by the company to maintain order and defend trading centers. Pattern 1853 Enfield Ammunition A history of the development of the ammunition used in the first successful general-issue military rifle 1st Lieutenant Brett Gibbons, Ordnance Corps, USAR December, 2016 Foreword A great deal has been written about the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle-musket by … A New Type of Rifle Cartridge Caused Problems . By the 1850s the East India Company controlled much of India. The Encyclopedia Americana however, says that it was derived from vegetables. In India, it has been viewed quite differently. The new Pattern 1858 gun with a different bore (0.656) was introduced to quell any uneasiness among the Indian sepoys and assurances were given that the cartridges were not dipped in beef or pork fat. Add to Cart. Sepoys were forced to watch such displays as it was believed it set an example of the horrific death that awaited mutineers. Believe it or not, it was the ‘Enfield Rifle’. The traditional story of the Sepoy Mutiny is that the introduction of a new cartridge for the Enfield rifle provoked much of the trouble. And when the Indian independence movement gained momentum in the 20th century, events of the Revolt of 1857 were viewed as having been an early battle for independence, while individuals such as Mangal Pandey were hailed as early national heroes. Enfield Pattern 1853 Percussion Rifle Musket cartridges, 1857 (c) Cartridges for most muzzle-loading firearms of the period took the form of a paper tube containing a ball and powder. Rumours spread that the cartridges for the new rifle were greased with pig and cow fat. Add to Cart. Gun Maintenance . 17th-19th century only, not 20th. Eley Cartridges . As the East India Company annexed Indian states in the 1840s and 1850s, the Indian soldiers in the company's employ began to feel offended. The P-53 Enfield rifle made use of a Metford-Pritchitt cartridge that necessitated the use of a heavy paper tube containing 2½ drams (68 grains) of musket powder and a 530-grain (34 g), pure lead bullet. As the bullet contained no annular grease rings like the French and American minie ball bullets introduced in 1847, it was … In an elaborate ceremony, Lord Lytton, the serving viceroy of India, honored a number of Indian princes. As the mutiny spread, the British began called mutineers "pandies." £50.00 £41.67. Express Cartridges . Loading involved biting the end of the cartridge, which was greased in pig fat and beef tallow. His unit in the Bengal Army, which had refused to use the new rifle cartridges, was about to be disarmed and punished. In the 1870s the British government formalized its role as an imperial power. Palmer and John Kaye trace the origins of the soldiers’ rebellion at Meerut to the Lee-Enfield Rifle. The Sepoys in the East India Company were first issued with the Enfield Pattern 1853 rifle-musket in 1857. The immediate cause of the Sepoy Mutiny in India in 1857 was the belief that the Lee-Enfield rifle's cartridges were greased with cow and/or pig fat. He was Amazon.com's first-ever history editor and has bylines in New York, the Chicago Tribune, and other national outlets. World War I-era arms, left to right, include the 12-gauge shotgun with bayonet attached, American Enfield, and Springfield rifles. Following the fighting of 1857–58, India was legally considered a colony of Britain, ruled by a viceroy. Queen Victoria, at the prompting of Benjamin Disraeli, announced to Parliament that her Indian subjects were "happy under My rule and loyal to My throne.". Enfield cartridges and Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 Were the cartridges for the Enfield rifle really greased in pig and cow fat, or was that just a rumor? Each area had a leader. He survived and was put on trial and hanged on April 8, 1857. In the altercation, Pandey was surrounded by British troops and shot himself in the chest. The spark that led to a mutiny in several sepoy companies was the issue of new gunpowder cartridges for the Enfield rifle in February, 1857. Under a British policy called the "doctrine of lapse," the East India Company would take control of Indian states in which a local ruler had died without an heir. For more than 150 years historians have maintained that India’s first revolt against British rule broke out at least in part over a gun—to be precise, the muzzle-loading Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle-musket. There is no doubt that conflict over the new rifle cartridges sparked the uprising in 1857, but the reality is that social, political, and even technological reforms had set the stage for what happened. In Mangal Pandey … in the mid-1850s, a new Enfield rifle was introduced into India that required a soldier to bite off the ends of greased cartridges in order to load the weapon. The Enfield rifle and cartridge The P-53 was officially known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle Musket. Rumors began to spread that the grease used to make the cartridges was derived from pigs and cows, which would be highly offensive to Muslims and Hindus. It was developed at the Enfield arsenal by James P. Lee and fired a .303 caliber ammunition that had to manually loaded before firing. Pandey, it should be noted, is considered a hero in India, and has been portrayed as a freedom fighter in films and even on an Indian postage stamp. But in the 1830s and 1840s, tensions began to emerge. Lee Enfield SMLE Spare Magazine . ... CIVIL WAR ENFIELD STYLE SPANISH CONTRACT MODEL 1857 OR P1857 PERC. Any British plans to reform Indian society, which had been one of the underlying causes of the revolt, were essentially set aside, and religious conversion of the Indian population was no longer viewed as a practical goal. Both Muslim and Hindu soldiers refused to use these cartridges and staged an uprising when they were forced to use them. A popular American illustrated magazine, "Ballou's Pictorial", published a full-page woodcut illustration showing the preparations for such an execution in its issue of October 3, 1857. The Online Collection showcases a selection of our objects for you to discover and explore. A number of Indians began to suspect that the British intended to convert the Indian population to Christianity. The standard method of loading was to bite the top off the cartridge and then pour the powder down the barrel. So what was the immediate cause of the Revolt of 1857? The uprising was officially declared over on July 8, 1859. This resource will grow as the Museum's Collection is catalogued and computerised, and as new acquisitions are added. Britain, of course, would rule India well into the 20th century. There is no question that atrocities were committed by both sides, and stories of events of 1857–58 lived on in both Britain and India. Yes, a rifle led to the need for a revolt! Its cartridges consisted of a .577 inch ball projectile and a charge of gun powder propellant wrapped in waterproofed cartridge paper. Sepoys in the British East India Company's armies in India were issued with the new rifle in 1857, and rumours were spread that the cartridges (referring here to paper-wrapped powder and projectile, not to metallic cartridges) were greased with beef tallow, pig fat, or a combination of the two – a situation abhorrent to Hindu and Muslim soldiers based on religious bel… Pandey rebelled by shooting a British sergeant-major and a lieutenant. Decoying . 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